Spirit Structures are rectilinear constructions made of interlocking spirit levels. Clicked horizontally or vertically

into position, each spirit level is aligned to display a perfect state of equilibrium.

Spirit Structures can be assembled from

a simple set of instructions, and remade as new configurations at a later time. By implementing a tectonic system that accumulates towards pure geometric abstraction, Spirit Structures fuse the high ideals of Minimalism with the democratic principles of DIY.


The aesthetics of Andre, Judd and LeWitt inform the series, as does the Duchamp tradition of the readymade. However, Spirit Structures might also be characterised by their use of multiple, mass-produced components and by the humanizing act of having been physically assembled, much like a game or puzzle. With the artwork's potential to be made, unmade, and re-made, the spirit level is conceived as a new kind of readymade: one that sees the functional use of this object as an integral part of its presentation as art.